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The stability of ramipril in water, in apple juice, and in applesauce was studied. The contents of a single capsule each of ramipril 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg were mixed in glass beakers with 120 mL of deionized and filtered water, apple juice, or applesauce. Each mixture was apportioned into 10 120-mL amber polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers. Five of the containers in each set were stored at 23 degrees C, and samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours. The other five containers were stored at 3 degrees C, and samples were taken at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours. The samples were analyzed for ramipril concentration by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The quantity of drug remaining in the PET container after "administration" was determined by mixing the contents of single 5-mg ramipril capsules with 60 mL of apple juice, pouring the mixture into a waste receptacle, rinsing the PET container three separate times with 10 mL of water, and analyzing the pooled fluid from these rinses for ramipril concentration by HPLC. Under no condition did the percentage of ramipril remaining drop below 90%. No peaks for degradation products appeared in the chromatograms. The mean +/- S.D. quantity of ramipril remaining in the PET containers after draining was 0.3 +/- 0.3% for the apple juice. Ramipril from 1.25-, 2.5-, and 5-mg capsules mixed in water, in apple juice, and in applesauce was stable for 24 hours at 23 degrees C and for 48 hours at 3 degrees C.
MI was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation in rats and sham-operated rats were used as control. Rats were treated daily with ramipril (1 mg.kg-1) or water, initiated 1 wk before surgery. Quantitative RT-PCR was applied to determine the Ang II receptors AT1, AT2 receptor gene mRNA levels in the non-infarcted myocardium.
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OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine the degree to which ramipril and/or rosiglitazone changed beta-cell function over time among individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who participated in the Diabetes Reduction Assessment With Ramipril and Rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) Trial, which evaluated whether ramipril and/or rosiglitazone could prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The present analysis included subjects (n = 982) from DREAM trial centers in Canada who had oral glucose tolerance tests at baseline, after 2 years, and at the end of the study. beta-Cell function was assessed using the fasting proinsulin-to-C-peptide ratio (PI/C) and the insulinogenic index (defined as 30-0 min insulin/30-0 min glucose) divided by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (insulinogenic index [IGI]/insulin resistance [IR]). RESULTS Subjects receiving rosiglitazone had a significant increase in IGI/IR between baseline and end of study compared with the placebo group (25.59 vs. 1.94, P < 0.0001) and a significant decrease in PI/C (-0.010 vs. -0.006, P < 0.0001). In contrast, there were no significant changes in IGI/IR or PI/C in subjects receiving ramipril compared with placebo (11.71 vs. 18.15, P = 0.89, and -0.007 vs. -0.008, P = 0.64, respectively). The impact of rosiglitazone on IGI/IR and PI/C was similar within subgroups of isolated IGT and IFG + IGT (all P < 0.001). Effects were more modest in those with isolated IFG (IGI/IR: 8.95 vs. 2.13, P = 0.03; PI/C: -0.003 vs. -0.001, P = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS Treatment with rosiglitazone, but not ramipril, resulted in significant improvements in measures of beta-cell function over time in pre-diabetic subjects. Although the long-term sustainability of these improvements cannot be determined from the present study, these findings demonstrate that the diabetes preventive effect of rosiglitazone was in part a consequence of improved beta-cell function.
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The expressions of PPARgamma and adiponectin mRNA increased significantly in both low and high dosage SCF groups as compared with the model group, and a positive linear correlation was found between the expressions of PPARgamma and adiponectin mRNA.
Fosinopril, ramipril and losartan significantly decreased the duration (sec) of immobility in forced swim test and were comparable to amitriptyline. The duration of immobility were significantly decreased in fosinopril, ramipril and losartan in the tail suspension test and were comparable to amitriptyline. Only losartan significantly increased the rearing number of entries, time spent (sec) in open arm and in light area in comparison to control animals. Fosinopril and ramipril and not lisinopril showed significant antidepressant activity while losartan showed a significant antidepressant and anxiolytic activity. Present findings suggest that these drugs could be better antihypertensives in hypertensive patients with comorbidity like depression or anxiety.
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African-Americans are likely to develop hypertension and hypertensive nephrosclerosis. This grave prognosis, coupled with familial aggregation of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Blacks, prompts a search for genetic risk factors for ESRD. Recent evidence implicates a crucial role for the sympathetic nervous system in progressive renal disease.