The combination for testosterone and 5-ARIs appears to be safe and efficacious, but the paucity of large long-term studies are needed to further clarify the concomitant use of testosterone and 5-ARIs in the aging male. Nickel JC and Carson CC. Testosterone supplementation in hypogonadal men on 5- ARI therapy. Sex Med Rev 2014;2:75-78.
The aim of the study was to investigate whether these polymorphisms moderate subjective effects of alcohol in humans and whether AKR1C3 2 affects neuroactive steroid synthesis.
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A case by non-case disproportionality approach was used whereby a Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) was used to confirm results.
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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent condition of older men caused by unregulated growth of the prostate gland. Clinical trials of medical therapy for BPH have consistently demonstrated that combined therapy with an α(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist and a 5α-reductase inhibitor is superior to either agent alone. The addition of anticholinergic therapy to a treatment regimen could effectively improve symptoms in men with persistent storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) who have not seen a benefit with an α(1)-AR antagonist or 5α-reductase inhibitor. Among α(1)-AR antagonists, doxazosin, terazosin, tamsulosin, and alfuzosin, although with slight differences in adverse event profiles, are equivalent in effectiveness and efficacy. No data in the form of direct comparator trials exist to suggest a difference in clinical efficacy of finasteride and dutasteride, the two 5α-reductase inhibitors currently available. Current American Urological Association guidelines do not recommend phytotherapy or dietary supplements in any combination for the medical management of BPH. The current literature supports the safety and efficacy of the combination of an α(1)-AR antagonist and a 5α-reductase inhibitor in the treatment of symptomatic BPH and, in select patients, the use of an α(1)-AR antagonist and anticholinergic medication in the treatment of LUTS suggestive of BPH.
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Finasteride and dutasteride, both 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, are considered first-line treatment for androgenetic hair loss in men and used increasingly in women. In each case, patients are expected to take the medications indefinitely despite the lack of research regarding long-term adverse effects. Concerns regarding the adverse effects of these medications has led the United States National Institutes of Health to add a link for post-finasteride syndrome to its Genetic and Rare Disease Information Center. Herein, the authors report the results of a literature search reviewing adverse events of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors as they relate to prostate cancer, psychological effects, sexual health, and use in women. Several large studies found no increase in incidence of prostate cancer, a possible increase of high-grade cancer when detected, and no change in survival rate with 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use. Currently, there is no direct link between 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use and depression; however, several small studies have led to depression being listed as a side effect on the medication packaging. Sexual effects including erectile dysfunction and decreased libido and ejaculate were reported in as many as 3.4 to 15.8 percent of men. To date, there are very few studies evaluating 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use in women. Risks include birth defects in male fetuses if used in pregnancy, decreased libido, headache, gastrointestinal discomfort, and isolated reports of changes in menstruation, acne, and dizziness. Overall, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors were well-tolerated in both men and women, but not without risk, highlighting the importance of patient education prior to treatment.
Androgens play an important role in controlling the growth of the normal prostate gland and in the pathogenesis of benign prostate hyperplasia, and prostate cancer. Although testosterone is the main androgen secreted from the testes, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a more potent androgen converted from testosterone by 5alpha-reductase isozymes, type I and II, is the major androgen in the prostate cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the cellular and molecular effects of dutasteride, a potent inhibitor of 5alpha-reductase type I and type II, in androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and androgen-unresponsive (DU145) human prostate cancer(PCa) cell lines. The expression pattern of 190 genes, selected on the basis of their proved or potential role in prostate cancerogenesis related to androgen signalling, were analysed using a low density home-made oligoarray (AndroChip 2). Our results show that dutasteride reduces cell viability and cell proliferation in both cell lines tested. AndroChip 2 gene signature identified in LNCaP a total of 11 genes differentially expressed (FC >or= +/-1.5). Eight of these genes, were overexpressed and three were underexpressed. Overexpressed genes included genes encoding for proteins involved in biosynthesis and metabolism of androgen (HSD17B1;HSD17B3;CYP11B2), androgen receptor and androgen receptor co-regulators (AR;CCND1), and signal transduction(ERBB2; V-CAM; SOS1) whereas, underexpressed genes (KLK3; KLK2; DHCR24) were androgen-regulated genes (ARGs). No differentially expressed genes were scored in DU145. Microarray data were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR assay (QRT-PCR). These data offer a selective genomic signature for dutasteride treatment in prostate epithelial cells and provide important insights in prostate cancer pathophysiology.