Bactroban is used to treat certain skin infections such as impetigo and furuncle. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Mupirocin.
Bactroban is an antibiotic ointment that is effective in treating impetigo, and other skin infections that bacteria causes. It is important to note that this ointment will not work on fungal infections or infections caused by viruses.
Bactroban consists of 2 medications: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The first inhibits synthesis of dihydrofolic acid (the substance important for human and bacterial metabolism) while the last blocks next stage of its biochemical cycle: formation of tetrahydrofolic acid which occurs only in microorganisms.
This medication is effective against streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, bacillus dysentery, typhoid fever, E. coli, Proteus, and ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spirochetes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactrim is applied in treatment of pneumonia and other diseases of respiratory, gastrointestinal systems, urogenital systems caused by bacterial infections which develop after surgery and others.
Bactroban is an antibacterial. It works by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.
Bactroban is also known as Mupirocin, Centany.
Generic name of Bactroban is Mupirocin.
Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Bactroban exactly as directed.
Bactroban should be applied directly to the skin.
This ointment is normally applied to the skin 3 times per day, normally for 1 to 2 weeks.
Before you apply the ointment, ensure that the affected area is clean and dry.
Apply a thin film of the ointment to the affected area. After applying the ointment, you may use a gauze to cover the affected area.
Wash your hands immediately after using Bactroban.
If you overdose Bactroban and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of overdose: dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach pain, headache, yellowing of your skin or eyes, blood in your urine, fainting.
Store at a room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Bactroban are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Bactroban if you are allergic to Bactroban components.
It is not known whether Bactroban will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.
Do not take Bactroban if you suffer from asthma or have severe kidney or liver disorders.
Do not take Bactroban if you have anemia caused by folic acid deficiency.
Bactroban should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 5 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.
Do not drink alcohol or use medicines that may cause drowsiness (e.g., sleep aids, muscle relaxers) while you are using Bactroban; it may add to their effects. Ask your pharmacist if you have questions about which medicines may cause drowsiness.
Do not use Bactroban on large areas of broken or damaged skin, especially if you suffer from reduced kidney function.
Avoid exposure to sunlight or getting tanned.
Do not stop taking Bactroban suddenly.
To elucidate the mode of action of pseudomonic acid, we have compared the deduced amino acid sequences of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases (ILeRS) from wild-type Escherichia coli strain MC4100, a pseudomonic acid-resistant mutant (strain PS102) of MC4100, and a pseudomonic acid-producing strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens. Compared with the wild-type enzyme, the deduced amino acid sequence of E. coli mutant ileS gene in strain PS102 shows a single amino acid substitution of leucine for phenylalanine at residue 594 of the IleRS. This mutational alteration in IleRS of an E. coli pseudomonic acid-resistant mutant resides in a region of the enzyme in close proximity to one of the consensus sequences of class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the KMSKS sequence between residues 602 and 606 of the E. coli IleRS. DNA sequence of the cloned ileS gene predicts that the P. fluorescens IleRS consists of 943 amino acids with 54% identity with the E. coli IleRS. The P. fluorescens ileS gene and the wild type and PS102 alleles of E. coli ileS were cloned into an expression vector, pEXPCR, and the sensitivities of E. coli DH5 alpha cells harboring each of these plasmids were compared. The cells harboring the P. fluorescens ileS were found to be most resistant to pseudomonic acid, while the transformants expressing the PS102 IleRS were more resistant than those containing the wild-type E. coli IleRS. IleRS purified from the wild-type E. coli was specifically cleaved by trypsin between Lys605 and Ser606 in the region of K602MSKS606. The protection of the IleRS from the trypsin digestion was found with pseudomonic acid or ATP, but not with isoleucine or tRNA(1Ile). Based on these results, we propose that pseudomonic acid binds to IleRS in the vicinity of the KMSKS sequence that is an ATP-binding subsite, and that pseudomonic acid is a bifunctional inhibitor with characteristics of both isoleucine and ATP, for example, an analog of isoleucyladenylate.
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Mupirocin resistance was found to be very low among local clinical isolates of MRSA. Its judicious use to decolonize nasal carriers should be promoted among hospitalized patients to avoid further transmission and infections due to prevalent endemic MRSA strains in any health care setting. Concomitantly, regular surveillance and effective infection control initiatives are desirable to reduce the incidence of health care associated infections due to MRSA and also of mupirocin resistance.
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Eighty-seven patients (age 23+/-11.5 years) with mild to severe AD (SCORAD 46.9+/-16.6), 21 patients (age 19.8+/-6.7 years) before antistaphylococcal treatment and 177 healthy nasal carriers (age 27.5+/-8.4 years) were microbiologically assessed for carriage of S. aureus. Colonization of lesional and nonlesional skin areas was quantified by counting the number of colony forming units on the skin surface (log(10) CFU cm(-2)). Antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance phenotypes of 179 S. aureus strains were assessed with the agar disc-diffusion method.
The community-acquired MRSA strain S. aureus NRS384 (USA300-0114) was used in the present study because it is commonly isolated from human nares and it established consistent and reproducible colonization of cotton rat nares. This model was used to evaluate the efficacy of ranalexin/lysostaphin gels (0.1%-1% w/v; administered intranasally once or once per day for 3 consecutive days) for reducing nasal MRSA burden. Control animals were administered vehicle gel only (0.5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) or 2% mupirocin, which is used clinically for nasal decolonization of MRSA. Nasal MRSA burden was assessed at 192 h post-inoculation, which was at least 72 h after the final treatment had been administered. An additional study assessed the efficacy of 0.1% ranalexin/lysostaphin against a mupirocin-resistant MRSA strain (MUP20), which had been selected by serial passage of S. aureus NRS384 through subinhibitory concentrations of mupirocin.
In an open, non-comparative clinical study conducted at 102 hospitals in the UK and Ireland, 1,510 subjects were treated with 2% calcium mupirocin in a white soft paraffin/Softisan 649 base (Bactroban 'Nasal') during hospital outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In most subjects treatment was applied two or three times daily to both anterior nares for three to eight days. Of the 766 assessable subjects, nasal carriage of S aureus was cleared in 744 (97.1%). Initially, MRSA was present in 628 cases (79.4%), and the organism was eliminated in 609 of these (97.0%). Isolates of S aureus were tested for susceptibility to a variety of antibiotics by disc test: of 523 nasal isolates tested against mupirocin, 516 (98.7%) were sensitive. Treatment was very well tolerated. Adverse events were reported by 22 subjects (1.5%); these were mostly mild local effects and necessitated withdrawal of treatment only in three subjects. The results indicate that topical calcium mupirocin is a highly effective and well tolerated treatment for the eradications of nasal carriage of S aureus, including MRSA.
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Referral to the Pediatric Infectious Disease Service (PIDS) for decolonization was determined for eligible children (2003-2010), with outcomes studied over 12 months.
We reviewed methods of preventing peritonitis in children. A considerable body of evidence indicates that peritonitis rates are lowest with the use of a double-cuffed catheter, with a downward directed tunnel, placed by an experienced surgeon. Evidence in adults, but lacking in children, suggests that exit-site mupirocin will lower Staphylococcus aureus exit-site infections and thus peritonitis rates. The risk of peritonitis due to contamination can be diminished by the avoidance of spiking and by the provision of a long training period. Catheter removal and replacement for catheter-related peritonitis may be done simultaneously in certain circumstances and is useful in decreasing the risk of recurrent peritonitis. Antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of catheter insertion, for contamination, during dialysate leaks, and for invasive procedures appears to be useful in diminishing peritonitis risk.
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Perianal streptococcal dermatitis (PSD) is a superficial bacterial infection usually with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. PSD is often misdiagnosed for long periods and patients are subjected to treatments for a variety of differential diagnoses without success. We report a 4-year-old boy with PSD who presented to our clinic with guttate psoriasis for 2 reasons: first, to make dermatologists aware of PSD and second, to emphasize the necessity to examine patients, particularly pediatric patients, with guttate psoriasis very thoroughly and swab both the pharynx and perianal and/or perigenital areas even when they are, or seem to be, asymptomatic for bacterial infections. Once PSD has been diagnosed, systemic antibiotic therapy with penicillin, erythromycin, roxithromycin, or azithromycin (probably augmented by topical mupirocin ointment) should be the treatment of choice. Therapy should be monitored by posttreatment perianal and throat swabs as well as a urine analysis to monitor for poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis.
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Bacteriologic evaluation of nasal carriage at admission in ICU, and after 3 days of prevention; evaluation of bacteriology of bronchial aspirate in the case of symptoms of ventilatory associated pneumonia.
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Administration of mupirocin before surgery is cost saving, primarily because healthcare-associated infections are very expensive. The level of mupirocin efficacy is critical to the cost-effectiveness of this intervention.
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