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Sub-optimal therapy of immunocompetent mice with either VCV or FCV did not readily select for HSV-mutants resistant to either ACV or PCV, suggesting that selection of resistance with either prodrug remains difficult using this system. Futhermore, this study suggests that the PEA may represent a useful adjunct to the PRA for monitoring alterations in the proportion of drug-resistant virus even when no change in IC50 is apparent.
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The performance characteristics of two new plastic membrane ion selective electrodes (ISEs) used for the determination of famciclovir (Fcv) based on the ion associate of Fcv with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) or phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) are described. Different experimental conditions as type of plasticizer to be incorporated in the membrane, life span, effect of soaking, pH, temperature, and interferences were studied. Both electrodes showed similar performance under these conditions, exhibiting Nernstian slopes of S (Fcv-PTA)=58.60±0.84 mV/decade and S (Fcv-PMA)=58.77±0.68 mV/decade within a usable concentration range of 10⁻⁵-10⁻² [Fcv/M] at 298/K. Famciclovir was assayed potentiometrically in its pure solution, pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids (urine and plasma) using proposed electrodes under batch and flow injection analysis (FIA) conditions with a recovery % ranging between 96.76% and 102.83% having RSD of 0.66%-1.81%. The electrodes were also successfully applied in the determination of the dissolution profile of Fcv tablets and the results came in agreement with the validated results of the HPLC method obtained from the quality control unit of the company producing the tablets.
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These findings seem to indicate that lamivudine and famciclovir-resistant variants circulate among Spanish HBV carriers. Since it is expected that antiviral therapy will be ineffective when drug-resistant variants are present before the beginning of treatment, it could be beneficial to test for these variants as an additional routine procedure when designing antiviral therapy on an individual basis.
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Drugs active against herpesvirus are undergoing rapid development. Acyclovir is the antiviral drug of choice for treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections and the varicella and zona virus (VZV) because of its efficacy and lack of toxicity. Valaciclovir, precursor of acyclovir, allows reducing the daily intake to 2 doses for HSV infections and to 3 doses for VZV. For cytomegalovirus infections and HSV that are resistant to acyclovir in immunodepressed patients, ganciclovir and foscarnet are available and effective but can involve respectively haematologic and renal toxicity. Penciclovir, the active form of famciclovir, is a new antiviral drug indicated in the treatment of zona.
To compare outcomes from patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) treated in the acyclovir-only era with those treated in the era of newer antiviral therapies, identify variables affecting outcomes in ARN, and evaluate strategies for fellow eye prophylaxis.
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This survey highlights the strong interest in and support for further study of suppressive antiviral treatment regimens to reduce complications of HZO.