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Second generation antipsychotic agents are increasingly used in the management of acute mania. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of these agents, as both monotherapy and in combination with mood stabilisers, was performed to establish the evidence for their use. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were critically appraised in more detail than studies that presented lower levels of evidence such as case reports, case series and open label follow up studies. We found 11 RCTs reporting on patients treated with second generation antipsychotics for acute bipolar mania, of which three included randomisation between the second generation antipsychotic and placebo, and eight between a mood stabiliser combined with either the second generation antipsychotic or placebo. Data from non-randomised trials is also presented.
Typical antipsychotics such as haloperidol exert their therapeutic effects via blockade of dopamine (DA) D(2) receptors, leading to extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in humans and catalepsy in rodents. In contrast, atypical antipsychotics and new generation D(2)/5-HT(1A) antipsychotics have low cataleptogenic potential. However, there has been no systematic comparative study on the effects of these different classes of antipsychotics in non-human primates, a species displaying a more sophisticated repertoire of behavioural/motor activity than rats. Once weekly, six young adult female non-haloperidol-sensitised cynomolgus monkeys were treated i.m. with a test compound and videotaped to score catalepsy-associated behaviour (CAB: static postures, unusual positions and crouching). Haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, nemonapride and remoxipride induced, to different extents, an increase in unusual positions (a response akin to dystonia), some crouching and static postures. In contrast, clozapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole produced much lower or no unusual positions; clozapine also produced marked increases in static postures and crouching. Among novel D(2)/5-HT(1A) antipsychotics, SLV313 and F15063 augmented the number of unusual positions, albeit at doses 16-63 times higher than those of haloperidol for approximately the same score. SSR181507 and bifeprunox produced moderate static postures, little crouching and negligible unusual positions. These data provide the first comparative analysis in cynomolgus monkeys of EPS liability of conventional, atypical and novel D(2)/5-HT(1A) antipsychotics. They indicate that the latter are less prone than haloperidol to produce CAB, and provide a basis for comparison with rodent catalepsy studies.
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Atypical antipsychotics now represent the mainstay of treatment for patients with schizophrenia. Unfortunately, as a class they have also been associated with an increased risk of weight gain and metabolic abnormalities, including type 2 diabetes. We have investigated the diabetogenic effects of a spectrum of antipsychotics, both atypical and typical. Healthy animals were treated acutely with clozapine (10 mg/kg), olanzapine (3.0 mg/kg), risperidone (1 mg/kg), ziprasidone (3 mg/kg) or haloperidol (0.25 mg/kg) and tested using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamp procedures. Clozapine and olanzapine had a rapid and potent effect on insulin sensitivity by lowering the glucose infusion rate and increasing hepatic glucose production. Both clozapine and olanzapine, as well as risperidone, decreased peripheral glucose utilization. Neither ziprasidone nor haloperidol had a significant impact on insulin sensitivity. In the hyperglycemic clamp, clozapine and olanzapine impaired beta cell function as reflected by a decrease in insulin secretion. Results confirm that 1) antipsychotic medications have an immediate impact on metabolic parameters and 2) the various atypical antipsychotics differ in their propensity to acutely induce metabolic side effects. Our data also support the preclinical use of these clamp procedures in screening putative antipsychotics.
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To investigate the effects of atypical antipsychotic medications in adolescents with psychosis. We reviewed in separate analyses various comparisons of atypical antipsychotic medications with placebo or a typical antipsychotic medication or another atypical antipsychotic medication or the same atypical antipsychotic medication but at a lower dose.
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Antipsychotic switching is routine in clinical practice, although it remains unclear which is the preferable switching method: immediate discontinuation of the current antipsychotic or a gradual tapering approach. The first strategy has been implicated in rebound/withdrawal symptoms and emergence/exacerbation of symptoms, whereas the gradual approach is thought to pose a risk of additive or synergistic side effects if employed in the context of a crossover approach.
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Drug discrimination is an increasingly valuable behavioral assay for the preclinical development of antipsychotic drugs. The majority of studies have used the atypical antipsychotic clozapine because it displays robust discriminative stimulus properties and is the "prototypical" or "gold standard" atypical antipsychotic against which other antipsychotics will undoubtedly be compared for many years.
Chengappa KNR, Turkin SR, Schlicht PJ, Murphy SL, Brar JS, Fagiolini A, Houck PR, Garbutt RG, Fredrick N. A Pilot, 15-month, randomised effectiveness trial of Risperidone long acting injection (RLAI) versus oral atypical antipsychotic agents (AAP) in persons with bipolar disorder.
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Although QALY ratings, PANSS scores, and other quality of life measures indicated modest improvement over 18 months, there were no significant differences between perphenazine and any second-generation medication. Average total monthly health care costs were 300 dollars-600 dollars (20%-30%) lower for perphenazine than for second-generation antipsychotics because of lower drug cost. Differences in costs remained when maximally discounted drug prices were used for all patients and when only observations during treatment with the first medication were included.