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Randomised controlled trials comparing any antibiotic regimen with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with ureaplasma detected in the vagina.
ilosone drug study
The elevated prevalence of azithromycin resistance may derive in part from a low value of AUC(24)/MPC(90) and/or time above MPC, since previous work indicates that the number of prescriptions per person was similar in the geographical regions examined.
ilosone gel resenha
The content, appearance, and dissolution bioavailability of delayed release erythromycin tablets conforms to the United States pharmacopoeia standards. The tablets should be stored in a cool and dry place in airtight containers and the shelf life is temporarily assigned two years.
ilosone 2 gel
Conjunctival and nasopharyngeal cultures for Chlamydia trachomatis were obtained from infants 30 days of age or younger with purulent conjunctivitis. Conjunctival specimens were also tested for other bacterial pathogens and for viruses. Most of the infants studied were black and came from a low-income, urban population. By random assignment infants received either topical treatment with 10% sulfacetamide sodium ophthalmic solution or systemic treatment with oral erythromycin estolate (50 mg/kg/day). Treatment was continued for 14 days if C trachomatis was isolated from the conjunctivae. Treatment was considered to be effective if conjunctivitis resolved and if follow-up chlamydial cultures of the conjunctivae and nasopharynx were negative at completion of therapy and two to four weeks later. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated in the absence of other pathogens from the eyes of 37 (73%) of 51 infants with conjunctivitis. Other bacterial pathogens were isolated from four infants (8%) and viruses from none. Chlamydial infection was eradicated from 14 (93%) of 15 infants treated orally. In contrast, persistent conjunctival infection was detected in eight infants (57%) and nasopharyngeal colonization in three (21%) of 14 infants after topical treatment. It was concluded that C trachomatis is the most frequent cause of neonatal conjunctivitis in the low-income, urban population studied; that erythromycin estolate administered orally for 14 days eradicates chlamydial conjunctival and nasopharyngeal infection; and that topical sulfacetamide therapy may result in persistent conjunctival infection and nasopharyngeal colonization.
ilosone ds suspension
Antimicrobial therapy in the pregnant woman has to consider the potential risks of antibacterial agents for the developing foetus and the mother. Extensive clinical experience shows that penicillins, cephalosporins and erythromycin (except erythromycin estolate) can be considered safe for the developing foetus and for the pregnant woman. Nitrofurantoin is a valid antibacterial option in pregnancy, except in the latter stages. Isoniazid and ethambutol are the safest drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis in pregnancy, but attention must be paid to the potential toxicity of isoniazid for the mother. For several other antimicrobial agents (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, newer macrolides, metronidazole, rifampicin, vancomycin) a potential teratogenic or toxic risk has been documented in animal or human studies: however, their use during pregnancy is justified when there is no safer alternative. A few antibacterials should be absolutely avoided in pregnancy: tetracyclines, cotrimoxazole and chloramphenicol according to a teratogenic risk or a toxic risk for the foetus or the mother, and clindamycin according to its high risk/benefits ratio. The safety data in pregnancy of many other antibacterials, including carbapenems, ketolides and streptogramines, are very limited or lacking. More data on the risks of antibacterial agents are needed for an optimal therapy of bacterial infections in pregnancy.
Food was withheld from foals overnight before intragastric administration of erythromycin estolate (25 mg/kg of body weight; n = 8) and erythromycin phosphate (25 mg/kg; 7). Four foals received both drugs with 2 weeks between treatments. Plasma erythromycin concentrations were determined at various times after drug administration by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Maximum plasma peak concentrations, time to maximum concentrations, area under plasma concentration versus time curves, half-life of elimination, and mean residence times were determined from concentration versus time curves.
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In an open randomized multicenter study 190 culture-positive pediatric ambulatory pertussis patients were treated for 14 days with either erythromycin estolate (EST) (n = 93; 40 mg/kg/day divided in 2 doses) or erythromycin ethylsuccinate (ETH) (n = 97; 60 mg/kg/day divided in 3 doses). On day 14 Bordetella pertussis was recovered from cultures of 2 patients (2.2%) treated with EST and 1 patient (1.0%) treated with ETH. Despite the fact that 151 patients (79.4%) had reached the early paroxysmal stage at initiation of antimicrobial therapy, clinical improvement was seen in the majority (reduced frequency and severity of coughing: EST, 77.4 and 67.7%; ETH, 74.2 and 63.9%, respectively). Drug-related side effects were noted in 11 patients (11.8%) treated with EST and 16 patients (16.5%) treated with ETH (P greater than 0.05) and consisted mainly of minor gastrointestinal complaints. Erythromycin estolate in a lower dose administered only twice a day was equivalent to erythromycin ethylsuccinate in all aspects and proved to be adequate antimicrobial treatment for pertussis patients.
Erythromycin and some other macrolide antibiotics can first induce a cytochrome P-450 isozyme similar to the one induced in rats by pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile and then inhibit it by forming a stable cytochrome P-450-metabolite complex. The purpose of this study was to compare azithromycin, a novel 15-membered ring azalide, and erythromycin estolate for the potential to cause hepatic microsomal enzyme induction and inhibition in Sprague-Dawley rats. The daily oral administration of 800 mg of erythromycin estolate per kg for 7 days resulted in statistically significant elevations of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, erythromycin N-demethylase (3.2-fold), and total cytochrome P-450 content. Approximately 40% of cytochrome P-450 was complexed with erythromycin metabolite. In contrast, the daily administration of 200 mg of azithromycin per kg for 7 days caused significant elevations of N-demethylase (2.5-fold) only and did not produce any increases in total cytochrome P-450 content or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. No complexed cytochrome P-450 was detected in the azithromycin-dosed rats despite liver concentrations of azithromycin that were 118 times greater than the liver concentrations of erythromycin estolate in erythromycin estolate-dosed rats. Although the short-term oral administration of azithromycin produced hepatic accumulation of the drug and elevated azithromycin demethylase activity, there was no other evidence of hepatic cytochrome P-450 induction or inactivation via cytochrome-metabolite complex formation. In contrast to erythromycin estolate, azithromycin is not expected to inhibit its own metabolism or that of other drugs via this pathway.
ilosone 250 mg
Primary cell cultures of neonatal hepatocytes were used to examine the protective effect of flavonoids in the presence of hepatotoxins. Catechin (CAT) and silybin (SIL) protected the hepatocytes against cell injury produced by erythromycin estolate (EE), amitriptyline (AT), nortriptyline (NT), and tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBOOH). Leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as morphological parameters, were used as indices of hepatotoxicity. Hepatocytes were exposed to EE (1 X 10(-4) M and 2 X 10(-4) M), AT, NT, and TBOOH (1 X 10(-4) M and 1 X 10(-3) M) for a 2-h period. These hepatotoxins caused significant LDH, AST, and ALT leakage (P less than 0.05) when compared to untreated control groups. NT was less toxic than its parent compound, AT. Changes in morphology were evident after 1 h of treatment with the toxicants, including: vacuole formation, size deformation and cell necrosis. As the concentration of hepatotoxins was increased, the changes were more pronounced. Pretreatment of the cultures with either CAT or SIL resulted in less enzyme leakage and morphological alterations by the hepatotoxins. The results of this study suggest that CAT and SIL may act by stabilizing the plasma membrane against toxic insult.