Sixty-two consecutive non-smoking patients with hoarseness and proven laryngitis were examined. Scores with respect to the larynx and for subjective complaints were determined and 24-h pH-metry to assess acid reflux in the lower oesophagus and pharynx was performed. Patients with pathologic reflux were given the chance to enter a double-blinded randomized crossover trial with pantoprazole 40 mg b.i.d. and placebo for a duration of 3 months each, separated by a 2-week washout period.
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To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a 1-week low-dose pantoprazole-based triple therapy in patients with H. pylori-positive duodenal ulcer.
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The role of intravenous pantoprazole in treatment of patients with high-risk bleeding peptic ulcers following endoscopic hemostasis remains uncertain. We therefore conducted the pilot prospective randomized study to assess whether intravenous pantoprazole could improve the efficacy of H(2)-antagonist as an adjunct treatment following endoscopic injection therapy for bleeding ulcers.
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Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) belong to a group of chemically related compounds whose primary function is the inhibition of acid production in the final common metabolic pathway of gastric parietal cells. PPIs are highly selective and effective in their action and have few short- or long-term adverse effects. These pharmacologic features have made the development of PPIs the most significant advancement in the management of acid peptic related disorders in the last two decades. There are numerous published adult studies that describe the pharmacology, efficacy and safety of these anti-secretory agents; however, in the pediatric population, there are very few comparable studies, particularly multicenter studies with significant patient enrollment. In preparing this article, our aim was to perform a comprehensive review of the literature on the clinical pharmacology and use of PPIs in the pediatric population, and to briefly review some recent articles. Relevant literature was identified by performing MEDLINE/Pubmed searches from January 1990 to December 2001. Combinations of the following search terms were use to analyze these databases: proton pump inhibitor, children, pediatrics, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophagitis, intestinal metaplasia, Helicobacter pylori, omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole, esomeprazole, and safety. Abstracts from the 14th annual conference of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) 2001, and the Disease and Digestive Week 2001, were also included in the review. All pediatric studies reviewed were limited to either omeprazole or lansoprazole. The dosage range used for the management of GERD and related disorders with lansoprazole was 0.73-1.66 mg/kg/day (maximum 30 mg/day). The dosage range for GERD management using omeprazole was 0.3-3.5 mg/kg (maximum 80 mg/day). The dosage range for omeprazole used for H. pylori was 0.5-1.5 mg/kg/day, with a maximum dosage of 40 mg/day, and lansoprazole-containing regimens for H. pylori eradication used dosages ranging from 0.6-1.2 mg/kg/day, with a maximum dosage of 30 mg/day. Few severe adverse events were reported with the use of either drug. Eradication rates for H. pylori were 56-87% for lansoprazole-based triple therapy, and 75-94% for omeprazole-based eradication regimens. To date, there are no published controlled trials of sufficient power comparing the efficacy of the five commercially available PPIs in children, for a variety of acid peptic diseases. Studies suggest that PPIs are highly effective for the management of GERD and related disorders, and are a critically needed component of triple therapy to eradicate H. pylori. PPIs have a very good tolerability profile in adults and children, but long-term tolerability studies are needed, particularly in the pediatric population. Multicenter studies are critically needed to evaluate the second-generation PPIs, to compare PPI efficacy to each other, and to assess the importance of developmental and genetic pharmacology of these drugs in children with acid-peptic disease.
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Response rates were 44.3% (Week 4) and 63.6% (Week 8) in Asian patients versus 60.7% (P < 0.001) and 72.2% (P = 0.010) for the rest of the world. Higher response rates at 8 weeks occurred in patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD; 71.3%) versus those with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) at baseline (48.5%). The presence of ERD (P = 0.0143) and lower ReQuest™-GI scores at baseline (P = 0.0222) were associated with response. Improvements in quality of life (QoL) and anxiety and depression at 4 and 8 weeks were associated with treatment response (both P < 0.0001). Patient satisfaction correlated with treatment response (P < 0.0001), and improvement in anxiety and depression (P < 0.0001) and QoL (P < 0.0001).
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Progress in management of Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastrointestinal toxicity requires the availability of appropriate experimental animal models that are as close to humans as feasible. Our objective was to develop a rat model for NSAID-induced gastroenteropathy and also to simulate the common clinical scenario of co-administration of NSAID and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) to explore if PPI contribute to exacerbation of NSAID-enteropathy.
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Approximately 75% of patients were free of symptoms or had no oesophageal lesions after 4 weeks' treatment, rising to about 93% and 96%, respectively, at 12 weeks. Complete remission rates were, however, lower at these time points; approximately 60% and about 90%, respectively. Both PPIs had similar efficacy.
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There was an improvement in hemoglobin, iron, total iron-binding capacity and ferritin values after H. pylori eradication in all subjects. Serum hepcidin-25 levels significantly decreased after H. pylori eradication (p < 0.001).