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To report a case of possible cisplatin-associated hepatotoxicity.
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Saliva has received recent attention because of its potential role in esophageal clearance and neutralization of refluxed gastric contents. Gastric antisecretory drugs or promotility drugs used to treat reflux have not been studied for their ability to affect salivary function. We conducted a double-blind randomized study of four antisecretory drugs, two promotility drugs, and placebo (PL) on 12 healthy volunteers on seven different days. Following a 6-hr fast, accumulated saliva was expectorated at least once per minute. The initial 10-min sample was discarded and a baseline 20-min sample collected. One of the following was given per os: PL, pirenzepine (PIR), 50 mg; propantheline (PRO), 30 mg; cimetidine (CIM), 300 mg; ranitidine (RAN), 150 mg; bethanechol (BET), 25 mg; or metoclopramide (MET), 10 mg. Saliva was collected for 60 min. Saliva was then stimulated (STIM) by sucking a peppermint lozenge for 30 min. Specimens were collected under oil, kept on ice, and analyzed within 30 min. Saliva flow in milliliters per minute and capacity for acid neutralization (CAN) in microequivalents acid per milliliter saliva were analyzed on all samples. The known effect of PRO to inhibit both basal saliva flow and STIM flow and CAN was seen. In contrast, the selective antimuscarinic PIR did not significantly decrease saliva flow or CAN. CIM, RAN, and MET did not significantly effect salivary function, but both CIM and RAN showed a tendency to increase CAN. Oral BET had no detectable effect on salivary function.
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Use of the prokinetic drugs metoclopramide or bromopride had no effect on abdominal wall healing in rats submitted to segmental colectomy and colonic anastomosis.
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The objective was to determine whether sex and age are associated with short-term headache relief, sustained headache freedom, or adverse medication effects in data collected during 3 emergency department (ED)-based acute migraine comparative efficacy trials.
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We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy? What are the effects of treatments for hyperemesis gravidarum? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
In order to examine whether some neuroleptic drugs were specifically more potent on human limbic dopamine receptors than on striatal dopamine receptors, we tested the potency of eight neuroleptics on their ability to inhibit the binding of [3H]spiperone to D2 dopamine receptors in human putamen and nucleus accumbens. Each of the neuroleptics had an identical potency in both tissues, the IC50 values being 0.2 nM for spiperone, 2.5 nM for haloperidol, 2.6 nM for trifluperidol, 5 nM for fluphenazine, 20 nM for thioridazine, 25 nM for chlorpromazine, 100 nM for metoclopramide and 300 nM for clozapine. There is no evidence, therefore, for the concept of a limbic-specific dopamine receptor antagonist.
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the use of the metoclopramide test provides no additional clinical information to that furnished by the basal serum PRL concentration for the hyperprolactinemic patient.
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The clinical utility of capsule endoscopy (CE) is often limited by incomplete small-bowel transit. The aim was to determine whether the use of an external real-time viewer could reduce delays caused by delayed gastric emptying of the capsule or delayed intestinal transit and also improve the rate of positive findings.
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In order to establish whether nitric oxide (NO) participates in the regulation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion in humans, seven normal men were treated with a placebo (normal saline) or the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME, given at doses (40 micrograms kg-1 injected plus 50 micrograms kg-1 infused i.v.) previously found to be unable to change blood pressure. Experiments were carried out either in basal conditions or during stimulation of TSH secretion with an i.v. injection of 200 micrograms thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) or 10 mg of the dopaminergic antagonist metoclopramide (MCP). Administration of L-NAME did not change the basal secretion of TSH or the TSH response to MCP, but significantly reduced the TSH increase induced by TRH. These data fail to provide evidence of NO involvement in regulation of basal TSH secretion. NO also appears to be without effects on the dopaminergic control of TSH secretion. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of L-NAME on TRH-induced TSH secretion suggests the mediation by NO of the TSH-releasing action of TRH.
The volumes and pH of gastric juice in 26 outpatients presenting for dental surgery were measured by simple aspiration through a nasogastric tube introduced after the induction of anaesthesia. The average volume in these patients who were non-smokers was 9 ml and in those patients who had smoked on the day of the operation was 19 ml. Four of the smokers had more than 25 ml of gastric juice with a pH of 2.0 or less. It is suggested that out-patients who smoke would benefit from prophylaxis such as oral antacids or metoclopramide before anaesthesia.