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Retrovir (Zidovudine)

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Generic Retrovir is used for treating HIV infection when used along with other medicines. It is also used with other medicines to help prevent women from passing the HIV virus to the fetus during pregnancy.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Sustiva, Combivir, Epivir, Zerit


Also known as:  Zidovudine.


Generic Retrovir is an antiviral. It works by blocking the reproduction of the HIV virus.

Generic name of Generic Retrovir is Zidovudine.

Retrovir is also known as Zidovudine, Azidothymidine, Zidovir, Retrovis.

Brand name of Generic Retrovir is Retrovir.


Do not stop taking it suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Retrovir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Retrovir are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Be careful with Generic Retrovir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Retrovir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you are allergic to Generic Retrovir components.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you have an enlarged liver, high lactic acid levels in the blood, or abnormal liver function tests.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you are taking doxorubicin, ribavirin, stavudine, or any medicine that contains zidovudine.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems, bone marrow problems, low white blood cell levels, kidney problems, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, or other liver problems.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you take zalcitabine because severe pancreas problems may occur, fluconazole, ganciclovir, interferon alfa, probenecid, valproic acid, or any medicine that contains zidovudine because they may increase the risk of Generic Retrovir 's side effects; doxorubicin, ribavirin, or stavudine because they may decrease Generic Retrovir 's effectiveness.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you are very overweight.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

retrovir drug

The overall rate of mother-to-child transmission at 6-8 weeks was 15.3% in 484 babies who received nevirapine and zidovudine and 20.9% in 468 babies who received nevirapine only (p=0.03). At 6-8 weeks, in babies who were HIV negative at birth, 34 (7.7%) babies who had nevirapine and zidovudine and 51 (12.1%) who received nevirapine only were infected (p=0.03)-a protective efficacy of 36%. This finding remained after controlling for maternal viral load and other factors at baseline. Adverse events were mild and of similar frequency in the two groups.

retrovir dosage forms

Cross-sectional study.

retrovir 200 mg

Pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection will soon be the primary infectious cause of perinatally acquired developmental disabilities in the United States. HIV encephalopathy and a variety of opportunistic infections, neoplasms, and vascular changes associated with pediatric HIV infection create a high probability of neuropsychological impairment among preschool and school-age children infected perinatally. Although the use of antiretrovirals may moderate some of the functional difficulties faced by these children, specific neuropathological and neuropsychological deficits are likely to remain. Treatments that prevent the central nervous system (CNS) effects of HIV have yet to be identified. As the epidemic progresses among women of child-bearing age, well-controlled developmental studies are needed to further clarify the relationship between HIV and child development, and to aid professionals in developing appropriate, school-based educational plans.

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To evaluate the management and outcomes of a series of human immunodeficiency virus-(HIV-) infected women whose pregnancies were complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM).

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While sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins interact predominantly in the DNA major groove, DNA polymerases bind DNA through interactions in the minor groove that are sequence nonspecific. Through functional analyses of alanine-substituted mutant enzymes that were guided by molecular dynamics modeling of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1-reverse transcriptase and DNA complex, we previously identified a structural element in reverse transcriptase, the minor groove binding track (MGBT). The MGBT is comprised of five residues (Ile94, Gln258, Gly262, Trp266, and Gln269) which interact 2-6 base pairs upstream from the polymerase active site in the DNA minor groove and are important in DNA binding, processivity, and frameshift fidelity. These residues do not contribute equally; functional analysis of alanine mutants suggests that Trp266 contributes the most to binding. To define the molecular interactions between Trp266 and the DNA minor groove, we have analyzed the properties of eight mutants, each with an alternate side chain at this position. A refined molecular dynamics model was used to calculate relative binding free energies based on apolar surface area buried upon complex formation. In general, there was a strong correlation between the relative calculated binding free energies for the alternate residue 266 side chains and the magnitude of the change in the properties which reflect template-primer interactions (template-primer dissociation rate constant, Ki,AZTTP, processivity, and frameshift fidelity). This correlation suggests that hydrophobic interactions make a major contribution to the stability of the polymerase-DNA complex. Additionally, tyrosine and arginine substitutions resulted in mutant enzymes with DNA binding properties better than predicted by buried surface area alone, suggesting that hydrogen bonding could also play a role in DNA binding at this position.

retrovir medicine

The incidence of first severe anemia (grade 3 or 4, Division of AIDS 2004 Toxicity Table) was assessed among HIV-uninfected infants in the Mashi and Mma Bana mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention trials in Botswana. Severe anemia rates were compared between 3 groups: infants exposed to maternal HAART in utero and during breastfeeding (BF) and 1 month of postnatal zidovudine (ZDV) (HAART-BF); infants exposed to maternal ZDV in utero, 6 months of postnatal ZDV, and BF (ZDV-BF); and infants exposed to maternal ZDV in utero, 1 month of postnatal ZDV, and formula-feeding (ZDV-FF).

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Potential baicalein-AZT interaction was indicated in the present study, indicating the need for monitoring when AZT is co-administrated with baicalein or baicalein-containing herbs.

retrovir dose

The co-administration of EFV-based or LPV/r-based ART with the ENG implant affected the expected bleeding patterns during use of the implant, although unfavourable bleeding (frequent and prolonged) was not associated with the medications under evaluation.

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retrovir dose 2015-08-26

In view of the lack of suitable paediatric antiretroviral formulations on the market, a novel fixed dose combination (FDC) tablet containing 300mg zidovudine (AZT) and 160mg lamivudine (3TC) was developed to buy retrovir improve dosing accuracy and allow flexible drug dosing in function of the body weight of paediatric HIV patients as recommended by WHO. Rectangular tablets with multiple fraction bars were designed and each tablet can be broken into 8 subunits, each subunit containing a drug dose corresponding to a body weight of 5kg. These fast-disintegrating subunits can easily be administered to children after dispersion in a liquid or mixing with food. In vitro quality control of the FDC tablets was determined and a crossover bioavailability study using 18 adult volunteers was performed after oral administration of the novel FDC tablet and a Duovir tablet. The results of the study showed that the novel tablets as well as its subunits disintegrated fast (<20s). After 30min dissolution, AZT and 3TC released from Duovir and the novel tablets was above 95%, the similarity factors f2 were above 50 for both AZT and 3TC. A tablet breakability test showed low weight variability (125.1+/-5mg, R.S.D.=4.4%), with limited weight loss (0.3%). There was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), t(max) and AUC(0-12h) values) between Duovir and the novel tablets formulated for paediatric applications.

retrovir 300 mg 2015-04-21

The phosphoramidate triester prodrugs of anti-human HIV 2', 3'-dideoxynucleoside analogs (ddN) represent a convenient approach to bypass the first phosphorylation to ddN 5'-monophosphate (ddNMP), resulting in an improved formation of ddN 5'-triphosphate and, hence, higher antiviral efficacy. Although phosphoramidate derivatization markedly increases the anti-HIV activity of 2',3'-didehydro-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine (d4T) in both wild-type and thymidine kinase-deficient CEM cells, the concept is far less successful for the 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) triesters. We now investigated the metabolism of triester prodrugs of d4T and AZT using pure enzymes or different biological media. The efficiency of the first activation step, mediated by carboxylesterases, consists of the formation buy retrovir of the amino acyl ddNMP metabolite. The efficiency of this step was shown to be dependent on the amino acid, alkyl ester, and ddN moiety. Triesters that showed no conversion to the amino acyl ddNMP accumulated as the phenyl-containing intermediate and had poor, if any, anti-HIV activity. In contrast to the relative stability of the triesters in human serum, carboxylesterase-mediated cleavage of the prodrugs was found to be remarkably high in mouse serum. The subsequent conversion of the amino acyl ddNMP metabolite to ddNMP or ddN was highest in rat liver cytosolic enzyme preparations. Although L-alaninyl-d4TMP was efficiently converted to d4TMP, the main metabolite formed from L-alaninyl-AZTMP was the free nucleoside (AZT), thus explaining why d4T prodrugs, but not AZT prodrugs, retain anti-HIV activity in HIV-infected thymidine kinase-deficient cell cultures. The rat liver phosphoramidase responsible for the formation of ddNMP was shown to be distinct from creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, and phosphodiesterase.

retrovir overdose 2015-09-19

Patients with a first occurrence of CD4 count <500 cells/microL (n=3301) were grouped as: no nucleoside reverse transcriptase Protonix Generic Name inhibitor (NRTI) use; other NRTI without stavudine or zidovudine; stavudine with no zidovudine, with or without other NRTIs; and zidovudine with no stavudine, with or without other NRTIs. The risk for death or disease progression was evaluated in unadjusted analyses and using a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for: study site, age, gender, race, route of HIV infection, previous AIDS-defining conditions, number of previous antiretroviral regiments, CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA, and treatment variables. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the sensitivity of the results to major modeling assumptions. A landmark analysis was conducted to determine the absolute difference in time to event.

retrovir syrup dosage 2017-09-21

We characterized the interactions of various compounds with OAT-K1 and OAT-K2, kidney-specific organic anion transporters. By using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells stably transfected with OAT-K1 or OAT-K2 cDNA, the antitumor drug methotrexate, the mycotoxin ochratoxin A, endogenous organic anions (thyroid hormones, taurocholic acid, and conjugated steroids), and the antiretroviral drug zidovudine were shown to be substrates for these transporters. Although the apparent Michaelis constant (Km) values of methotrexate for OAT-K1 and OAT-K2 were 2.1 and 1.8 microM, respectively, 2.5 mM methotrexate inhibited only 20% of the 125I-thyroid hormones uptake via these transporters. In addition, 100 microM methotrexate did not have any effect on [3H]zidovudine uptake via OAT-K1 or OAT-K2. Similarly, several substrates caused little or no mutual inhibition at concentrations much higher than their Km values for these transporters. Moreover, intracellular methotrexate trans-stimulated the OAT-K1- and OAT-K2-mediated uptake of [3H]folic acid, but not that of other compounds. Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 2 (oatp2), a liver-type homolog of OAT-K1 and OAT-K2, showed similar events. The inhibition constant values of triiodothyronine and taurocholic acid for [3H]digoxin uptake in oatp2-expressing oocytes resulted in 50.4 and 1.48 mM, respectively, which were about 9- and 40-fold higher than their Km values for oatp2, respectively. These findings suggested that several substrates interact with these transporters at different amino acid residue( Lexapro Liquid Dosage s). Taken together, these observations suggested that OAT-K1 and OAT-K2 could serve as multispecific transporters, mediating transport of a wide variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites in the kidney, presumably via several interaction sites in their molecules.

retrovir medicine 2015-10-18

Ritonavir, a potent antiretroviral protease inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of adults and children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In a phase I/II study, we assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profile of the oral solution of ritonavir in Cymbalta Splitting Capsules HIV-infected children and studied the preliminary antiviral and clinical effects.

retrovir drug name 2016-03-10

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the bioadhesivity, in vitro drug release, and permeation of an intravaginal bioadhesive polymeric device (IBPD) loaded with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Modified polyamide 6,10, poly(lactic-coglycolic acid), polyacrylic acid, polyvinyl alcohol, and ethylcellulose were blended with model drugs AZT and PSS as well as radio-opaque barium sulfate (BaSO4) and then compressed into caplet devices on a tableting press. One set of devices was coated with 2% w/v pentaerythritol polyacrylic acid (APE-PAA) while another remained uncoated. Thermal analysis was performed on the constituent polymers as well the IBPD. The changes in micro-environmental pH within the simulated human vaginal fluid due to the presence of the IBPD were assessed over a period of 30 days. Textural profile analysis indicated that the bioadhesivity of the APE-PAA-coated devices (3.699 +/- 0.464 N; 0.0098 +/- 0.0004 J) was higher than that of the uncoated devices (1.198 +/- 0.150 N; 0.0019 +/- 0.0001 J). In addition, BaSO4-facilitated X-ray imaging revealed that the IBPD adhered to pig vaginal tissue over the experimental period of 30 days. Controlled drug release kinetics was obtained over 72 days. During a 24-h permeation study, an increase in drug flux for both AZT (0.84 mg cm(-2) h(-1)) and PSS (0.72 mg cm(-2) h(-1)) was realized up to 12 h and thereafter a steady-state was achieved. The Propecia 90 Tablets diffusion and dissolution dynamics were mechanistically deduced based on a chemometric and molecular structure modeling approach. Overall, results suggested that the IBPD may be sufficiently bioadhesive with desirable physicochemical and physicomechanical stability for use as a prolonged intravaginal drug delivery device.

cost of retrovir 2017-06-06

To assess the effects of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy on cell-free and cell-associated viral load in blood and lymphoid tissue, we performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial comparing a double (zidovudine + lamivudine) and triple (zidovudine + lamivudine + ritonavir) drug combination in treatment-naive, asymptomatic patients with CD4 counts >400 cells/microl. HIV-1 RNA was measured in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and sequential tonsil or lymph node biopsies (27 patients); the study follow-up was 2 years. Among 42 randomized patients, the proportion with plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml was 16% and 74% at week 24 (p<.001) in those randomized to double and triple therapy, respectively, necessitating frequent treatment intensification in the double arm. After a rapid decline within 4 weeks in both arms, cell-associated HIV-1 RNA decreased further only in those patients with sustained suppression of plasma viral load, but remained almost always detectable at low levels, indicating persisting transcription of viral RNA. CD4 counts increased by 200 to 250 cells/microl at week 96 in both arms without significant differences (intent-to-treat analyses). Thus, even if treatment is initiated early in asymptomatic patients with preserved Mobic Common Dosage CD4 counts, three drugs are necessary to achieve sustained decreases of HIV load in blood and lymphoid tissue.

retrovir brand name 2017-02-12

AZT (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine) resistance involves the enhanced excision of AZTMP from the end of the primer strand by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. This reaction can occur when an AZTMP-terminated primer is bound at the nucleotide-binding site (pre-translocation complex N) but not at the 'priming' site (post-translocation complex P). We determined the crystal structures of N and P complexes at 3.0 and 3.1 A resolution. These structures provide insight into the structural basis of AZTMP excision and the mechanism of translocation. Docking of a dNTP in the P complex structure suggests steric crowding in forming a stable ternary complex that should increase the relative amount of the N complex, which is the substrate for excision. Structural differences between complexes N and P suggest that the conserved YMDD loop is involved in translocation, acting as a springboard that helps to propel the primer terminus from Clomid Male Dosage the N to the P site after dNMP incorporation.

retrovir tablets spc 2016-07-10

Metabolic alterations and body fat changes are well-recognized limitations of protease inhibitor-based regimens. Strategies of replacing protease inhibitors with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or abacavir have been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities, particularly by decreasing cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and reducing cardiovascular risk. The various therapeutic options show differences in efficacy, tolerability, and metabolic outcomes. Abacavir seems to be better tolerated, at least in the only randomized trial in which the three options were compared face-to-face, but it is associated with higher virologic failure in patients with prior suboptimal nucleoside therapy. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, particularly nevirapine, result in a better lipid profile with a greater increase in HDL cholesterol and in the HDUtotal cholesterol ratio, one of the most important parameters associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. Efavirenz has been associated with increased triglyceride levels in some studies. Although protease inhibitor compounds as a family have been linked to metabolic and body fat alterations, new drugs such as atazanavir seem to be associated with a more favorable lipid profile. Lipoatrophy is a stigmatizing complication in HIV-infected patients receiving HAART. There is strong evidence suggesting a prominent role of thymidine analogs, mainly stavudine, in its development. Substitution of stavudine or zidovudine for abacavir or tenofovir partially improves peripheral fat loss. In addition, the lipid profile significantly improves. Finally, although the extended use of non-thymidine nucleoside analogs and the development of new families of antiretroviral drugs will probably result in a lower impact in lipids and morphologic changes, many patients are currently under treatment with these compounds. In this setting, switching strategies may be useful to minimize clinical and psychological consequences, improving the quality of life of HIV-infected patients treated with HAART.