The overall rate of mother-to-child transmission at 6-8 weeks was 15.3% in 484 babies who received nevirapine and zidovudine and 20.9% in 468 babies who received nevirapine only (p=0.03). At 6-8 weeks, in babies who were HIV negative at birth, 34 (7.7%) babies who had nevirapine and zidovudine and 51 (12.1%) who received nevirapine only were infected (p=0.03)-a protective efficacy of 36%. This finding remained after controlling for maternal viral load and other factors at baseline. Adverse events were mild and of similar frequency in the two groups.
retrovir dosage forms
retrovir 200 mg
Pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection will soon be the primary infectious cause of perinatally acquired developmental disabilities in the United States. HIV encephalopathy and a variety of opportunistic infections, neoplasms, and vascular changes associated with pediatric HIV infection create a high probability of neuropsychological impairment among preschool and school-age children infected perinatally. Although the use of antiretrovirals may moderate some of the functional difficulties faced by these children, specific neuropathological and neuropsychological deficits are likely to remain. Treatments that prevent the central nervous system (CNS) effects of HIV have yet to be identified. As the epidemic progresses among women of child-bearing age, well-controlled developmental studies are needed to further clarify the relationship between HIV and child development, and to aid professionals in developing appropriate, school-based educational plans.
retrovir syrup zidovudine
To evaluate the management and outcomes of a series of human immunodeficiency virus-(HIV-) infected women whose pregnancies were complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM).
retrovir brand name
While sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins interact predominantly in the DNA major groove, DNA polymerases bind DNA through interactions in the minor groove that are sequence nonspecific. Through functional analyses of alanine-substituted mutant enzymes that were guided by molecular dynamics modeling of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1-reverse transcriptase and DNA complex, we previously identified a structural element in reverse transcriptase, the minor groove binding track (MGBT). The MGBT is comprised of five residues (Ile94, Gln258, Gly262, Trp266, and Gln269) which interact 2-6 base pairs upstream from the polymerase active site in the DNA minor groove and are important in DNA binding, processivity, and frameshift fidelity. These residues do not contribute equally; functional analysis of alanine mutants suggests that Trp266 contributes the most to binding. To define the molecular interactions between Trp266 and the DNA minor groove, we have analyzed the properties of eight mutants, each with an alternate side chain at this position. A refined molecular dynamics model was used to calculate relative binding free energies based on apolar surface area buried upon complex formation. In general, there was a strong correlation between the relative calculated binding free energies for the alternate residue 266 side chains and the magnitude of the change in the properties which reflect template-primer interactions (template-primer dissociation rate constant, Ki,AZTTP, processivity, and frameshift fidelity). This correlation suggests that hydrophobic interactions make a major contribution to the stability of the polymerase-DNA complex. Additionally, tyrosine and arginine substitutions resulted in mutant enzymes with DNA binding properties better than predicted by buried surface area alone, suggesting that hydrogen bonding could also play a role in DNA binding at this position.
The incidence of first severe anemia (grade 3 or 4, Division of AIDS 2004 Toxicity Table) was assessed among HIV-uninfected infants in the Mashi and Mma Bana mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention trials in Botswana. Severe anemia rates were compared between 3 groups: infants exposed to maternal HAART in utero and during breastfeeding (BF) and 1 month of postnatal zidovudine (ZDV) (HAART-BF); infants exposed to maternal ZDV in utero, 6 months of postnatal ZDV, and BF (ZDV-BF); and infants exposed to maternal ZDV in utero, 1 month of postnatal ZDV, and formula-feeding (ZDV-FF).
Potential baicalein-AZT interaction was indicated in the present study, indicating the need for monitoring when AZT is co-administrated with baicalein or baicalein-containing herbs.
The co-administration of EFV-based or LPV/r-based ART with the ENG implant affected the expected bleeding patterns during use of the implant, although unfavourable bleeding (frequent and prolonged) was not associated with the medications under evaluation.