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A 44-year-old woman with borderline personality traits and severe drug dependence developed a protracted drug-induced psychosis related to chronic high-dose crystalline methamphetamine use. Complete resolution of symptoms occurred with antipsychotic medication and abstinence from methamphetamine. Rapid recurrence of symptoms occurred at a time of high stress associated with minimal methamphetamine use and cessation of low-dose quetiapine. Symptoms rapidly resolved with abstinence, quetiapine and reduction of stressors.
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Two prospective trials were identified that evaluated the effect of quetiapine in primary insomnia. In addition, 2 retrospective cohort studies were identified that evaluated the safety of low doses of quetiapine when used for insomnia. Several case reports on adverse effects with low doses of the drug were also included.
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Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder which has been shown to affect 2 to 3.5% of people during their lifetimes. Inadequate response occurs in 40% to 60% of people that are prescribed first line pharmaceutical treatments (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)). To date not much is known about the efficacy and adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in people suffering from OCD.
Pharmacotherapy in patients with dementia aims to improve distressing behavioral and psychological signs of dementia after nonpharmacologic interventions fail, without causing unacceptable side effects or exacerbating underlying cognitive impairment. We review data describing risperidone (3 published placebo-controlled trials), olanzapine (1 abstract regarding a placebo-controlled trial and a published placebo-controlled trial), quetiapine (1 published open-label trial and an abstract regarding a placebo-controlled trial), and aripiprazole (1 abstract regarding a placebo-controlled trial). For example, a 12-week study of risperidone in patients with Alzheimer's disease showed a dose-related improvement in psychosis and agitation. The frequency of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) was also significantly greater in patients receiving the highest doses. A 6-week study of olanzapine showed greater improvement than placebo in agitation/aggression and psychosis with doses of 5 and 10 mg/day, but not 15 mg/day, with side effects including gait disturbance and sedation at all doses. A 52-week, open-label trial of quetiapine (median dose = 138 mg/day) in elderly patients with psychosis suggested good tolerability with apparent behavioral benefit; EPS improved or remained unchanged in most patients. Limited data describing aripiprazole have shown inconclusive evidence regarding relief of psychosis in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease-related dementia, with apparently good tolerability over the short term. It appears that, in the aggregate, atypical antipsychotics are efficacious for treatment of agitation in dementia, with less clear impact on psychosis, but their tolerability profiles clearly differ. The National Institute of Mental Health-funded Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness in Alzheimer's Disease project will provide the first head-to-head comparisons of atypicals in dementia and will examine possible drug-drug differences between efficacy and effectiveness.
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Results of the identified studies suggested that patients with PD might benefit from long-term clozapine therapy. Results of the quetiapine studies were conflicting. However, no statistically significant difference in effectiveness was found between quetiapine and clozapine in comparative trials. The significance of the differences in treatment responses between patients with dementia and those without dementia remains unclear, and it was not possible to draw conclusions for or against other atypical antipsychotics because of insufficient evidence. Further studies are needed to address the methodologic issues in the current trials and to assess safety issues in larger cohorts.
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The main findings of the study were that the total adjusted 1- and 2-year costs were lowest for quetiapine. Drug acquisition costs were lowest for risperidone for both the 1- and 2-year cohorts. Clozapine use was predictably associated with the highest overall and medication costs at both 1 and 2 years.
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Adjunctive quetiapine demonstrated significantly greater improvement than placebo in Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder Overall Severity scores (F(1)=10.12, p=.002) and MADRS scores (F(1)=6.93, p=.0138), but no significant differences were observed for YMRS scores (F(1)=3.68, p=.069). Side effects of quetiapine were consistent with those observed in previous clinical trials, with sedation/somnolence being the most common, occurring in 53.3% with QTP and 20.0% with PBO.
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The aim of this article is to review published data regarding the safety of antipsychotic medications in pregnancy with a focus on the most commonly used atypical antipsychotics.
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Treatment options for bipolar depression have increased over the last decade, most notably with regulatory approval for olanzapine/fluoxetine combination, quetiapine, and lurasidone. Conventional mood stabilizers lamotrigine and divalproex have meta-analyses suggesting acute antidepressant response. Manual-based psychotherapies also appear to be effective in treating bipolar depression. The therapeutic utility of unimodal antidepressants, as a class, for the treatment of patients with bipolar depression, as a group, remains to be confirmed. There is a substantially unmet need to develop new interventions that are efficacious, effective, and have low side effect burden.