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A 70-year old female, until recently a resident of the rural Philippines, underwent coronary bypass grafting in New York City. Nine hours after surgery (one hour after endotracheal extubation), cough and arterial oxygen desaturation prompted airway suctioning, which retrieved an adult nematode from the posterior oroharynx. symptomes abated immediately, after which the patient receive a curative course of mebendazole.
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The efficacy of MEB, as assessed by FECR, was determined in six trials involving 5,830 school children in Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, Ethiopia, United Republic of Tanzania, and Vietnam. The efficacy of MEB was compared to that of ALB as previously assessed in 8,841 school children in India and all the above-mentioned study sites, using identical methodologies.
One hundred sixty-two children aged 5 to 16 years whose parents complained about their chronic bad breath.
Improvement of FLBZ aqueous solubility due to CDs resulted markedly higher than that observed for mebendazole and albendazole. However, oppositely to what was expected, the absorption-related pharmacokinetic parameters did not show any marked formulation-dependant effect. After the i.a. administration of FLBZ, the AUC and the Tmax of the parent compound were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, which is consistent with ruminal bypass.
The rate of major congenital defects was not significantly higher in the mebendazole group than in the control group (97 [1.8%] of 5275 vs 26 [1.5%] of 1737; odds ratio 1.24 [95% CI 0.8-1.91], p=0.39). Among 407 women who had taken mebendazole in the first trimester (contrary to medical advice), 10 (2.5%) had major congenital defects (odds ratio vs controls 1.66 [0.81-3.56], p=0.23). The proportions of stillbirths and perinatal deaths were significantly lower in the mebendazole group (1.9 vs 3.3%, 0.55 [95% CI 0.4-0.77]), as was the proportion of low-birthweight babies (1.1 vs 2.3%, 0.47 [95% CI 0.32-0.71]).
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The metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a parasitic disease affecting the liver, with occasional metastasis into other organs. Benzimidazole carbamate derivatives such as mebendazole and albendazole are currently used for chemotherapeutic treatment of AE. Albendazole is poorly resorbed and is metabolically converted to its main metabolite albendazole sulfoxide, which is believed to be the active component, and further to albendazole sulfone. Chemotherapy with albendazole has been shown to have a parasitostatic rather than a parasitocidal effect; it is not effective in all cases, and the recurrence rate is rather high once chemotherapy is stopped. Thus, development of new means of chemotherapy of AE is needed. This could include modifications of benzimidazoles and elucidiation of the respective biological pathways. In this study we performed in vitro drug treatment of E. multilocularis metacestodes with albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of vesicle fluids showed that the drugs were taken up rapidly by the parasite. Transmission electron microscopic investigation of parasite tissues and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of vesicle fluids demonstrated that albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone had similar effects with respect to parasite ultrastructure and changes in metabolites in vesicle fluids. This study shows that the in vitro cultivation model presented here provides an ideal first-round test system for screening of antiparasite drugs.
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It is not entirely clear when and how steroids should be used to treat trichinellosis.
Hydatidosis of the bone is a rare form of human echinococcosis. Due to the clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic problems involved, the costal and occipital locations are of particular interest. Both are rare and differ from visceral locations in that they are always "primary" and have the capacity to destroy the bone matrix and infiltrate the adjacent tissues. The course of the disease is particularly slow and without specific signs and symptoms so that it can look like any bone condition. Laboratory tests are frequently negative and not wholly specific. While some authors claim that the radiological picture is of no diagnostic significance, others state that it offers pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis will be obtained through the combined assessment of clinical, radiological, laboratory and anamnestic data. Provenance from a rural area should reinforce the suspicion. Surgery, whether radical or conservative, is the key factor in treatment though local recurrences are common. Better results are obtained by combining surgery with Mebendazole for pre and postoperative prophylaxis. Large doses over a long period will give a better clinical course and reduce the incidence of recurrences. The prognosis is good for both sites as long as surgical treatment is given in good time.
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Fifty-three patients with single, multiple and/or multi-organ hydatid cysts were treated with mebendazole, in varying dosages (30-70 mg/kg.day) and over varying periods (6-24 months). Treatment failure was recorded if the mebendazole had no apparent effect on cyst morphology (monitored by radiology, ultrasonography and computed tomography) or only a parasitostatic effect (characterized by mixed and transitory, hypo- and hyper-echoic changes in the lesions). Cure was indicated by a parasitocidal effect (characterized by a totally echogenic picture, increased density of the cyst contents, reduction in the size or complete disappearance of the cysts, complete detachment of the endocysts and/or calcification of the cyst wall). Treatment failure was seen in about 40% of the patients and cure in about 38%; the other 23% had an intermediate result considered as an improvement. Cure rates increased both with dosage and duration, daily dosages of 60-70, 50 and 30-40 mg/kg curing 48%, 33% and 25%, respectively. The pre-treatment condition of any cysts should be taken into consideration when determining dosage and treatment duration.